Incinerator bottom ash (IBA) is a heterogeneous material containing a mixture of concrete, ceramics, glass brick and fused materials. IBA is ash from the bottom of the incinerator and is produced during the incinerating process of domestic waste in an energy recovery facility. After removal of the bulk of ferrous and non- ferrous metal – the remainder of the material is combined to form IBA. It can be used as bulk fill and sub bases in unbound form, and road paving in bound form.


There is a duty of care to test the material as hazardous or non-hazardous in accordance with a Environment Agency (EA) agreed protocol. The frequency of testing can vary depending on the suite of analysis required.

MSSL can offer monitoring for the following suites:

Dioxin and Furans

Dioxin like PCBs

Heavy metals

Monthly testing H4/H7/H14 IBA Hazard Asessment

Annual H1-H15 IBA Hazard Assessment

Air POllution Control Residue (APCR) and Fly Ash

Waste combustion normally produces a bottom ash (described above) and a fly ash. The fly ash, as the name suggests, is the lighter residue formed during the process which is drawn through the plant exhaust air system and, if unabated, out to atmosphere via the stack

On modern plants an abatement system is installed in order to remove any pollutants present in the exhaust air prior to emission to atmosphere. Pollutants can include acidic gases-sulphur dioxide and hydrogen chloride, oxides of nitrogen, heavy metals, and organic compounds-dioxins and furans and VOCs plus others. There are a large variety of abatement systems available but the most popular involve dry scrubbing of the flue gas with an alkaline powder which contains a combination of lime, bicarbonate and activated carbon. The solid residue produced after scrubbing is known as Air Pollution Control Residue and contains significant concentrations of pollutants and is classed as hazardous waste

MSSL is able to offer a full analysis service for Fly Ash and APCr samples for waste classification and environmental permitting purposes including analysis of the following-

Dioxins and Furans, PCBs and PAHs

Heavy Metals

Acidic compounds

Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) analysis including leachability