Halides

In order to measure the concentration of halides (chlorine, bromine, fluorine and iodine) and sulphur in the sample the liquid residue produced from bomb digestion above is analysed. The analysis technique utilised by MSSL is Ion Chromatography. Results produced in mg/litre are then converted to % w/w in the fuel sample.

 
 
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Chlorine

One of the most important reported parameters in SRF, the limit set by cement kilns is usually 0.8%w/w because of the need to keep salts to a minimum in the cement making process., There is also a need to keep chlorinated compounds from escaping to air via the plant stack. Upper limit for RDF/Municipal waste is usually 1.0%w/w but can be plant type dependent


Bromine

Is less active chemically than chlorine and fluorine but is more active than iodine; its compounds are similar to those of the other halogens. Bromine is soluble in organic solvents and in water. WTE & Cement kiln limits are similar to Chlorine.


Fluorine

When fluorine from the air ends up in water it will settle into the sediment. When it ends up in soils, fluorine will become strongly attached to soil particles. In the environment fluorine cannot be destroyed; it can only change form. WTE & Cement kiln limits are similar to Chlorine.


Iodine

Not such a commonly asked for parameter, rarely specified

 

 

 

 


Sulphur

An element of high concern to Cement kilns, too much Sulphur in the ash can cause sulphate attack in cement and concrete which results in product failure. Also important in determining the amount of contamination (SO x) to air the fuel without abatement is likely to cause. WTE & Cement kiln limits are similar to Chlorine.


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Legislation/Guidance